The Physical Environment

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Radiation and Energy

Energy and HeatThe Sun


Looking Back: Energy and heat

Radiation and Energy Balance of the Earth System 

Looking Back: Radiation and Energy Balance

Global Patterns of Insolation, Net Radiation, and Heat

Global Patterns of Sensible and Latent Heat

Future Geographies: Radiative Forcing and the Heat Balance

Looking Back: Global Patterns and Future Geographies

Review and Additional Online Resources





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For Citation: Ritter, Michael E. The Physical Environment: an Introduction to Physical Geography.
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Michael Ritter (
Last revised 6/22/11

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